CES Business Division


Capillary electrophoresis sequencing (CES) is a service that analyses DNA sequences using a biochemical method. Macrogen’s CES service maximises customer satisfaction with various service line-ups such as identification services, which involve the differentiation and identification of species of living organisms, fragment analysis services, and customised sequencing services newly applied from the existing sequencing method, as well as standard sequencing, which is the most common service. CES is used in a wide range of fields such as basic research in molecular biology, breeding research, genetic disease research, paternity confirmation and forensic research, and has become vital to the continued development of life sciences.

Aside from general sequencing services, Macrogen’s CES service provides additional customised services (gDNA extraction, primer synthesis, PCR amplification, and purification) according to customer requests. A separate online order system is also available for customers’ convenience so that they can request a desired service. Monitoring of all processes and follow-ups for the results are provided for each ordered sample.

Standard Sequencing

Standard SequencingStandard sequencing is a service that sequences PCR products and plasmid DNA requested by customers. Macrogen provides quicker and more accurate services based on the Capillary Electrophoresis Sequencing (CES) automation system and extensive experience.
After the results are shipped, expert managers in the sequencing field are ready to provide help until the follow-up.


  • ABI 3730xl System
  • High quality results, Normal read length (1,050bp)
  • Real-time monitoring is possible from order receipt to delivery of the results based on Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS)
  • Results provided within 48 hours of sample receipt
  • Free basic analysis service provided (homology search using BlastN and DNA sequence orders)
  • Free universal primer

Standard Sequencing Single/Plate

Standard sequencing can be performed with single tubes and 96well plates.

Single Tube Sequencing

  • Samples are prepared in individual tubes upon request
  • Free re-sequencing service

96well Plate Sequencing

  • Samples are prepared in 96-well plates upon request
  • Up to 6 types of primer can be used for 1 plate
  • Competitive price

Additional Service

  • PCR product purification (both single/plate available)
  • Gel extraction
  • Confirmation of concentration by gel running

Difficult Template Sequencing

Difficult template sequencing is a service for sequencing templates that have an unusual structure based on the customer’s information after confirming the standard sequencing results.

* Especially suitable for templates with an unusual structure as below:

  • siRNA with hairpin structure
  • Unusual secondary structure
  • GC/GT/AT-rich
  • Homopolymeric tracts (Poly A, PolyG)
  • Repetitive regions

Improved high-quality results can be obtained as shown in the example below.

Identification Services

16S/18S/26S rRNA and ITS Region Full Sequencing

16S/18S/26S rRNA and ITS Region Full Sequencing is a service that analyses sequences by amplifying ribosomal RNA genes of bacteria and fungi (filamentous fungus and yeast) and confirming homology of target microorganisms using an rRNA database (NCBI).

Macrogen controls and performs all processes from gDNA extraction of bacteria and fungi (filamentous fungus and yeast) to PCR amplification, purification, sequencing, and BI report.


For bacteria, PCR of 16S rRNA genes is performed using 27F and 1492R primers, and sequencing is conducted using 785F and 907R primers, which are the inter-primers, to identify bacteria. If the customer requests it, a primer can be additionally selected/changed and about 1,350 bp or longer sequences can be provided.

  • 1,600 bp or higher results are guaranteed by the sequencing of the 18S rRNA region.
  • 500 bp or longer results are guaranteed by the sequencing of ITS region.
  • 1,300bp or longer results are guaranteed by the sequencing of 26S rRNA gene (D1/D2/D3 region).

Animal/Plant Identification

Animal/Plant Identification is a service that identifies a species of living organism by sequencing ‘DNA Barcode’, which is a region used for the identification of species in the gene of a living organism.

If you send us a sample, then we will process it from the extraction of gDNA to the sequencing result of the barcode area and provide the analysis report.


  • A species can be distinguished by just a small part of a living organism such as a leaf of a plant, a tissue of an animal, a feather of a bird, or a leg of an insect.
  • A barcode can be identified even for animals that are hard to distinguish morphologically or regardless of the development stage of a living organism because it always has the same information.
  • Identification can be made by comparison to the existing bio-species data using a standardised barcode technique, and estimation of new species and identification of non-registered species are possible.
  • It can be used for identification of a biological resource species, verification of biological resources, verification of raw material, and verification of biological contamination.
  • A customised service is available for certain standard genes or specific samples.
Division Sample type Genes to analyse Additional analysis
Animal Barcoding Animal, insect, bird, fish, etc. COI 12S/16S rRNA, ITS
Plant Barcoding plant matK, rbcL rpoB, rpoC1, atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI. psbA-trnH

Fragment Analysis Service

The Fragment Analysis Service includes various services such as genotyping, DNA profiling, medical mutation detection and agricultural research.

Macrogen provides a microsatellite analysis (VNTRs) service based on our extensive experience and expertise.

Fragment Analysis Service (Genescan Service)

Fragment analysis service Fragment Analysis is a service that separates, and analyses amplified PCR products according to fragments using a primer marked by a fluorescent label.

Service types 

  • Micro-satellite instability
  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis
  • Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis
  • Relative fluorescent quantisation – Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), Aneuploidy assays, and Large chromosomal deletion detection
  • Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP)


  • The resulting data is provided as an FSA file (PDF and Excel files are also possible)
  • Results are provided within 3 to 7 business days after samples arrive
  • Customised service from PCR optimisation to fragment analysis is available
Dye Set DS-30 DS-33
Blue 6-FAM 6-FAM Sample
Labeling Dyes
Yellow NED NED
Internal Standard
Size Marker
(Maximum detection size)
350 ROX (350bp) 120 LIZ (120bp)
400HD(400bp) 500 LIZ(500bp)
600 LIZ(600bp)
1,200 LIZ(1,200bp)

Customised Sequencing

PCR Optimisation/Amplification Service

PCR optimisation Features
– Customised service
– Execution of pre-tests to provide high-quality results
– Accurate results and quick delivery and control of results by professional research staff
– gDNA can be extracted from samples of plants and animals


Pyrosequencing is a sequencing service using pyrophosphate (PPi) generated when the polymerization of nucleotide with DNA occurs. Since there are more epigenetics studies on controlling the expression level of certain genes regardless of DNA sequence, the DNA methylation analysis service is gaining more attention. For DNA methylation analysis, very accurate and reliable results can be expected by the pyrosequencing service.


  • Methylation studies
  • SNP and Indel analysis
  • Used for cancer studies
  • Even 5% or lower allele frequencies can be found
  • Suitable for somatic mutation analysis
  • Di-, tri-, tetra allelic mutation analysis is available.

Validation for NGS results is available

  • Biomarker verification
  • Validation and verification of GWAS and NGS data

NGS Validation Service

NGS (next-generation sequencing) validation is a service that verifies data using Sanger sequencing to improve the accuracy and reliability of data after using the NGS service. When the customer specifies the chromosome position or reference sequence, we analyse the SNP of a certain area and the mutation results.

  • Quicker and more accurate tests are possible for customers using Macrogen’s NGS service because the samples are transferred directly..
  • When the chromosome position and reference sequence are verified, convenient use is possible via the one-stop service from overall primer design to verification of sequencing results and comparative analysis of variants.
  • Comparative data under normal control can be verified if required and data can also be verified using two primer sets to deliver more accurate results.

MLST Analysis Service

Multi locus sequence typing (MLST) is an analysis method used to classify strains with the same species such as bacteria and fungi. Sequencing is performed on five to seven specific housekeeping genes of species to analyse the correlation of each ST (sequence type), and genetic/molecular evolutionary relations can be verified by the combination of alleles for each strain in the same species.
MLST Analysis Service

One-click Sanger Sequencing

One-click Sanger sequencing is a method of conveniently and quickly analysing certain commonly studied gene variations with just one click. Optimised results from gDNA extraction to PCR amplification, sequencing and SNP analysis are delivered to customers.

Macrogen’s expert researchers perform sequencing of specific exon areas and provide variant analysis results using a primer set manufactured based on many years of know-how.

Primer Walking Service

Primer walking is a service that analyses the sequence of plasmids or PCR products that cannot be read at once by single primer extension. It is generally used to obtain about 2 to 10 kb of sequence information. End sequencing is performed with a primer provided or specified by the customer, and the internal primer is designed and produced based on the results. This is extended continuously by redesigning the internal primer in a suitable location from the results obtained by the new primer’s reaction with the same template. Walking takes about 4 days, and can be extended about 500–800 bp in one direction.

Cloning Service

The cloning service is performed by separating a specific gene or DNA section and duplicating it in large amounts. The service is provided by inserting a PCR product in the vector (T-vector or blunt-vector) provided by Macrogen or via the vector from the customer (sub-cloning). For various reasons, more than one PCR product can be present and, if so, it is not possible to obtain normal sequencing results, although the situation can be improved by cloning.

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